In Russland wird alljährlich am 7. November der Jahrestag der Oktober-Revolution begangen, die am 25. Oktober 1917 in Petrograd (später Leningrad, seit 1991 St. Petersburg) ihren Anfang genommen hat.

 

Dass die Feiern zu dem Jahrestag im November abgehalten werden, sollte nicht zu dem Schluss verleiten, die Russen würden ihrer Zeit hinterherhinken. Wohl benutzten die Russen bis weit in das vergangene Jahrhundert hinein einen an sich überholten Kalender, nämlich den julianischen Kalender. Dieser war vor über 2000 Jahren von dem römischen Herrscher Gaius Julius Caesar eingeführt worden, nach dessen Familienname Julius der Kalender bezeichnet wurde.

 

Das julianische Kalenderjahr ist gegenüber dem realen Sonnenjahr jedoch etwas zu lang bemessen worden. Dadurch `wanderten` die Daten von Naturerscheinungen, die immer zu derselben Zeit vorkommen, kalendarisch allmählich rückwärts Richtung Jahresanfang, so beispielsweise das Kalenderdatum der Tagundnachtgleiche. Da dieses Datum aber für die Bestimmung der Daten von hohen christlichen Feiertagen (z.B. Ostern) außerordentlich wichtig ist, versuchte die weströmische Kirche in Rom (röm. kathol. Kirche) unter Papst Gregor XIII. das Kalenderjahr dem Sonnenjahr anzugleichen. Dazu verfügte Gregor XIII. folgende Veränderung des julianischen Kalenders: Im einem Zyklus von vier Jahrhunderten fallen insgesamt drei der von Julius Caesar in den Kalender eingefügten Schalttage (Schaltjahre) weg, und zwar in den Jahren, in denen ein Jahrhundert vollendet wird mit Ausnahme der Jahrhunderte, deren Anzahl durch vier teilbar ist, ohne dass ein Rest übrig bleibt. Daher waren nach der Kalender-Reform die Jahre 1700, 1800 und 1900 normale Jahre ohne Schalttage, während die Jahre 1600 und jüngst 2000 Schaltjahre geblieben sind. Um die im Laufe der Jahrhunderte ein getretene Verschiebung des julianischen Kalenderjahrs gegenüber dem Sonnenjahr auszugleichen, Gregor XIII. ferner den einmaligen Wegfall von 10 Kalendertagen an. Dazu ließ er unmittelbar auf den 4. Oktober 1582 den 15. Oktober folgen. Damit war der gregorianische Kalender vollendet, der von da an dem julianischen Kalender um 10 Tage voraus war. Seit 1582 sind bis heute 3 weitere Schalttage fortgefallen, dass sich die Differenz zum julianischen Kalender seit dem 1. März 1900 auf 13 Kalendertage erhöht hat.

 

Die Fürstentümer im Bereich der orthodoxen Kirchen mit Zentrum Byzanz/Konstantinopel (ehem. oströmisches Reich) haben aus politischen Gründen die Kalender-Reform des Papstes in Rom, den sie nicht anerkannten, zunächst nicht mitgemacht. Später sind sie aber doch, wenn auch nur zögerlich, der Kalenderumstellung gefolgt. Als letztes Land im Bereich der orthodoxen Kirchen hat Russland erst 1918 den gregorianischen Kalender eingeführt.

 

Als Trotzki am 7. November 1917 (nach dem gregorianischen Kalender) das Winterpalais des Zaren in Petrograd (später Leningrad, seit 1991 Sankt Petersburg) stürmen ließ und damit die Revolution auslöste, richtete man sich in Russland also immer noch nach dem alten Kalender und schrieb dort erst den 25. Oktober. Daher hat das Ereignis, das die Welt so sehr veränderte, die Bezeichnung „Oktoberrevolution“ erhalten, die beibehalten wurde.

 

Die orthodoxen Kirchen haben zwar inzwischen ihren Widerstand gegen die gregorianische Kalender-Reform aufgegeben, die schließlich nur naturwissenschaftliche Gründe hatte. Dennoch sind sie bei der Bestimmung der Termine für die hohen kirchlichen Feiertage aus Tradition beim julianischen Kalender geblieben. Deshalb finden die orthodoxen Feste der Russen, Serben, Griechen, Syrer und Kopten in der Regel später statt als die entsprechenden Feste bei uns.

114 Kommentare

  1. Dank Anti-Kollisionssensoren gehört der DJI Phantom 4 zu den sicheren Quadrocoptern. Doch technische Ausfälle, elektronische Defekte oder eine Fehlbedienung können durchaus vorkommen – auch deshalb sollte eine Haftpflichtversicherung bei jedem DJI Phantom 4-Piloten unbedingt vorhanden sein.

  2. zjFhXy you have a great weblog right here! would you prefer to make some invite posts on my blog?

  3. Spot on with this write-up, I truly feel this site needs a great deal more attention. I all probably be returning to read through more, thanks for the advice!

  4. Muchos Gracias for your article post.Much thanks again. Awesome.

  5. Thank you for your blog article.Really looking forward to read more. Much obliged.

  6. Oh man! This blog is sick! How did you make it look like this !

  7. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I ave truly enjoyed browsing your blog posts. After all I will be subscribing to your rss feed and I hope you write again soon!

  8. Im obliged for the blog article.Really thank you! Want more.

  9. What is the best technique to search intended for blogs you are concerned in?

  10. This is one awesome blog.Really thank you! Keep writing.

  11. Well I sincerely liked reading it. This subject offered by you is very effective for correct planning.

  12. Thank you ever so for you blog post.Really looking forward to read more. Cool.

  13. I suggest you to visit a site on which there are many articles on a theme interesting you.

  14. You have made some good points there. I looked on the web to learn more about the issue and found most individuals will go along with your views on this website.

  15. You made some clear points there. I did a search on the issue and found most people will consent with your website.

  16. you write. The arena hopes for more passionate writers like you who aren at afraid to say how they believe. All the time follow your heart.

  17. Thank you for sharing this very good piece. Very interesting ideas! (as always, btw)

  18. Outstanding quest there. What happened after? Take care!

  19. Merely wanna Merely wanna remark that you have a very nice site, I the design it really stands out.

  20. This is a really good tip particularly to those fresh to the blogosphere. Simple but very accurate info Appreciate your sharing this one. A must read article!

  21. Wow, what a video it is! Genuinely fastidious quality video, the lesson given in this video is truly informative.

  22. Say, you got a nice post.Really thank you! Really Cool.

  23. Pretty! This has been a really wonderful post. Thank you for providing this information.

  24. We all speak a little about what you should speak about when is shows correspondence to simply because Maybe this has more than one meaning.

  25. work on. You have done an impressive job and our entire group will probably be thankful to you.

  26. Say, you got a nice article.Much thanks again. Great.

  27. There is certainly noticeably a bundle to understand about this. I assume you produced particular nice points in attributes also. jordans cheap

  28. Some truly superb posts on this internet site , regards for contribution.

  29. Very good blog post.Really looking forward to read more. Fantastic.

  30. Real clear internet site, thanks for this post.

  31. Im obliged for the article post. Really Great.

  32. Im obliged for the article post.Really thank you! Really Cool.

  33. It will never feature large degrees of filler information, or even lengthy explanations.

  34. Appreciate you sharing, great post.Really thank you! Want more.

  35. That is really interesting, You are an overly skilled blogger.

  36. Thanks for sharing this fine piece. Very inspiring! (as always, btw)

  37. sarko carla divorce divorce par consentement mutuelle

  38. your intelligence on just posting videos to your site when you could be giving

  39. This very blog is really awesome as well as informative. I have discovered a lot of helpful things out of this blog. I ad love to visit it again and again. Thanks a lot!

  40. Thanks a lot for the blog post. Fantastic.

  41. Very good blog.Thanks Again. Really Cool.

  42. pretty practical material, overall I consider this is worthy of a bookmark, thanks

  43. very nice post, very nice post, i certainly love this fabulous website, go on it

  44. This very blog is really awesome additionally diverting. I have picked up many useful stuff out of it. I ad love to come back every once in a while. Cheers!

  45. You made some good points there. I looked on the internet for the issue and found most people will consent with your site.

  46. Major thanks for the blog.Really thank you! Fantastic.

  47. I reckon something really interesting about your internet blog so i bookmarked.

  48. Very informative blog article. Want more.

  49. Thanks a bunch for sharing this with all people you really know what you are talking about! Bookmarked. Kindly additionally discuss with my site =). We may have a hyperlink change agreement among us!

  50. Some really prime content on this web site , saved to fav.

  51. Very informative article.Really thank you! Great.

  52. Pretty! This was an extremely wonderful post. Many thanks for supplying this information.

  53. the Country/Roots and Americana charts in both

  54. you might have a terrific weblog right here! would you wish to make some invite posts on my weblog?

  55. the time to read or visit the subject material or web-sites we ave linked to below the

  56. Simply wanna remark that you have a very decent web site , I enjoy the design and style it actually stands out.

  57. Spot on with this write-up, I absolutely feel this site needs a lot more attention. I all probably be returning to read through more, thanks for the info!

  58. Well I definitely enjoyed studying it. This information provided by you is very constructive for correct planning.

  59. I truly appreciate this blog article. Great.

  60. it is part of it. With a boy, you will have

  61. Spot on with this write-up, I really believe this amazing site needs a great deal more attention. I all probably be returning to read more, thanks for the info!

  62. I truly like your weblog put up. Preserve publishing a lot more beneficial data, we recognize it!

  63. Really appreciate you sharing this blog article.Really looking forward to read more. Really Cool.

  64. internet explorer crashing on launch How to build a wordpress site while domain is on redirect.?

  65. Thank you ever so for you article post.Much thanks again. Keep writing.

  66. I truly appreciate this blog post. Much obliged.

  67. Really enjoyed this article post.Thanks Again. Cool.

  68. web to learn more about the issue and found most people will go along with your views on this site.

  69. Im obliged for the blog.Much thanks again. Really Great.

  70. This excellent website really has all the info I needed concerning this subject and didn at know who to ask.

  71. Some really prime posts on this internet site , saved to favorites.

  72. There is certainly a lot to learn about this subject. I like all of the points you have made.

  73. Really appreciate you sharing this blog post. Really Cool.

  74. Wow! This can be one particular of the most useful blogs We ave ever arrive across on this subject. Actually Wonderful. I am also an expert in this topic therefore I can understand your hard work.

  75. It as hard to find educated people about this topic, however, you seem like you know what you are talking about! Thanks

  76. Some truly quality articles on this site, saved to bookmarks.

  77. That is a very good tip especially to those new to the blogosphere. Short but very precise information Thanks for sharing this one. A must read article!

  78. Im thankful for the blog.Much thanks again. Will read on

  79. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace.

  80. look forward to seeking more of your great post. Also, I ave shared your site in my social networks!

  81. Thanks for the article.Really thank you! Cool.

  82. I cannot thank you enough for the post. Want more.

  83. Im obliged for the blog article.Really looking forward to read more. Want more.

  84. What as up, just wanted to tell you, I liked this blog post. It was funny. Keep on posting!

  85. Say, you got a nice article post.Really thank you! Will read on…

  86. Thanks for sharing, this is a fantastic article post. Really Cool.

  87. Awesome blog.Much thanks again.

  88. Very interesting subject, regards for posting.

  89. Thanks a lot for the article post. Awesome.

  90. Hey, thanks for the blog post.Much thanks again.

  91. Post writing is also a fun, if you know afterward you can write otherwise it is complex to write.

  92. Thanks-a-mundo for the blog article.Thanks Again.

  93. I think this is among the most vital info for me.

  94. Rattling fantastic information can be found on weblog. I believe in nothing, everything is sacred. I believe in everything, nothing is sacred. by Tom Robbins.

  95. Usually I do not read article on blogs, but I wish to say that this write-up very compelled me to try and do so! Your writing style has been surprised me. Thank you, quite nice post.

  96. Post writing is also a fun, if you be acquainted with then you

  97. When I saw this page was like wow. Thanks for putting your effort in publishing this article.

  98. I cannot thank you enough for the article post.Really looking forward to read more. Keep writing.

  99. people will pass over your magnificent writing due to this problem.

  100. It as nearly impossible to find educated people on this subject, however, you sound like you know what you are talking about! Thanks

  101. Thanks for sharing, this is a fantastic article post. Much obliged.

  102. Useful info. Lucky me I discovered your website unintentionally, and I

  103. This is a good tip especially to those new to the blogosphere. Simple but very precise info Many thanks for sharing this one. A must read article!

  104. Thanks a lot for the blog.Really thank you! Awesome.

  105. This very blog is no doubt entertaining and also factual. I have discovered a bunch of handy tips out of this amazing blog. I ad love to come back every once in a while. Thanks a bunch!

  106. Thanks-a-mundo for the blog article.Really thank you! Keep writing.

  107. I’а†ve learn some good stuff here. Certainly price bookmarking for revisiting. I wonder how much attempt you put to make such a excellent informative site.

  108. It as hard to find knowledgeable people about this topic, but you sound like you know what you are talking about! Thanks

  109. Really appreciate you sharing this post.Really looking forward to read more. Really Great.

  110. Really informative blog article.Really looking forward to read more. Keep writing.

  111. The Silent Shard This could almost certainly be quite useful for a few of the employment I decide to you should not only with my blog site but

  112. Maybe you can write subsequent articles relating to this

  113. I loved your blog.Really looking forward to read more. Fantastic.

  114. Looking forward to reading more. Great article.Really thank you! Really Cool.

Schreibe ein Kommentar

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind markiert *

*

Du kannst folgende HTML-Tags benutzen: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>