Jeder kennt das, man liegt am Strand, die Sonne scheint, man entspannt einfach und geht wieder ins kühle Haus, wenn es dunkel wird. Am nächsten Morgen will man seine schöne braune Haut im Spiegel beobachten, doch was ist das, der ganze Oberkörper ist rot und voller kleiner Bläschen…. Wie Sonnenbrand entsteht und was Sonnencreme eigentlich bewirkt, wird in diesem Text erklärt.

Wie ein Sonnenbrand entsteht:

Ein Sonnenbrand entsteht, wenn die Haut zu lange den UV-Anteilen der Sonnenstrahlen ausgesetzt ist. Sobald die Strahlen in die Haut eindringen, schädigen sie das Zellgewebe, wodurch sogenannte Zytokine freigesetzt werden. Diese führen zu einer Entzündung. Dadurch erweitern sich die Gefäße, so wird die Haut stärker durchblutet und eine rote Färbung entsteht. Außerdem tritt Flüssigkeit in das Gewebe aus und Blasen bilden sich. Sonnenbrand kann äußerst schmerzhaft sein.

In sehr hoher Dosis zerstören die UV-Strahlen Stränge in der DNA, diese DNA-Schäden können Jahre später zu Hautkrebs führen.

Besonders gefährdet sind die Schultern und der Oberkörper, da diese Körperpartien oft der Sonne ausgesetzt sind. Auf ihnen kommt es auch häufig zu Hautabschälungen, bei denen sich die oberen abgestorbenen Hautschichten ablösen.

Wie schützt man sich gegen Sonnenbrand:

Um die Haut vor Sonnenbrand zu schützen, ist Sonnenschutzmittel unerlässlich. Die Lichtschutzstoffe, die in diesen Mitteln enthalten sind, sind chemische Verbindungen, die einen Teil der UV-Strahlen absorbieren oder reflektieren. Es gibt Sonnecremes mit hohen und welche mit niedrigeren Lichtschutzfaktoren für unterschiedliche Hauttypen. Ein Teil der UV-Strahlen dringt aber trotzdem zur Haut durch. Wenn man ohne Sonnenschutzmittel in die Sonne will, sollte man erst einmal gucken, was für ein Hauttyp man ist. Manche sind schon nach fünf Minuten rot wie eine Tomate, während andere nach 30 Minuten immer noch keinen Sonnenbrand haben. Aber nach 40 Minuten sollte selbst ein dunkler Hauttyp in den Schatten. Je heller der Hauttyp, desto anfälliger ist er und je dunkler, desto weniger anfällig. Deshalb sollte ein empfindlicher  Hauttyp auch eine Sonnencreme mit höherem Lichtschutzfaktor benutzen.

Als zusätzlicher Schutz kann auch Kleidung, wie z.B. Cap, T-Shirt mit Kragen etc. dienen.

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